What if it was 2017 and everything was the same, but there were no NRENs? What if the world decided it needed them? The presentation takes a look at what a newly minted NREN might look like if it was created in a commercially dominated Internet-centric world. What services would it provide, what would its stakeholders demand of it and how would it grow? Perhaps most importantly, what can this counter-factual tell us about our own NRENs and what we need to do to adapt to an ever changing world.